People and Economic Activities

  1. Define viticulture and winemaking

Viticulture: The science and practice of grape growing. It occurs in the vineyard

Winemaking: The process of converting the sugar present in the grapes into an alcoholic beverage. It occurs in the winery.

  1. Give a brief history of grape growing and wine making

  1. Why do winemakers use such a variety of grapes? Give 3 examples and note their characteristics

Most wine grapes are of the species vitis vinifera

A variety of grape types are used as they provide different characteristics and may be suited to a certain area.


  1. Describe the global spatial distribution of wine production today. Note how vintages can vary from year to year

• Australia has over 100 wineries spread through every state; most are small; 4 largest companies

account for 80% of production

• USA is the world’s 4th largest producer

• Chile is free of phylloxera and therefore grafting is not required

• Argentina is the most important wine producing nation in South America

• South Africa has an annual output that places them in the world’s top 10 producers

• Major grape growing regions of the Old World (Northern Hemisphere) include; France’s Loire

Valley, Italy’s Tuscany, Germany’s Rhine Land

• France is the world’s largest producer of wine and the main wine exporter (Bordeaux,

Burgundy, Champagne)

• Italy is the world’s second largest wine producer

• Spain is the world’s third most important producer of wine; has more land under vines than

anything other country

• Average vineyards in the old world tend to be smaller (2 ha) than vineyard in the new world

(average 67 ha)

• Area under European Vines is 3362 kha (thousands of acres)

• Spanish vineyards have declined significantly between 2008 and 2011 yet are now stabilising with

just over one million hectares

• Top four wine producing countries (Italy, France, Spain and the US) account for 43% of grape

production and 58% of total global wine production.

- Australia produces 2.8% of grapes and 4.4% of wine production and is 5th largest producer in

the world

  1. Explain how the global spatial distribution and volume of wine production has varied since the 1950s
  2. How has wine consumption changed recently? Globally and within specific countries)

Europe consumes 68.6% of global wine drunk

  1. Why has global expenditure on wine increased, yet global consumption fallen?

There is a growing demand for more expensive wines especially within the Asian population.

  1. How and why is the world’s vineyard acreage changing

Appears to be reducing however yield is constant or increasing due to increased density of vines.

  1. Note some of the challenges facing the Australian wine industry and responses to these
  2. Describe how biophysical factors affect viticulture and the spatial distribution of wine production



  1. How has the biophysical environment produced problems for viticulture


  1. How can viticulture be ecologically sustainable?

Concerns and solutions

  1. How have economic factors affected the wine industry?

Wine exports for Australia is an over $2 billion dollar market.

Global Wine Trade

Wine Tourism:


Mobility of labour:

Demand and Supply


  1. What are the socio-cultural factors that have affected the spatial distribution of viticulture and wine production? Describe their impacts


Changing Lifestyles

Labour participation rates

  1. How do organisational factors affect the wine industry?


Organisational Institutions:

  1. How does technology affect viticulture and wine production?




Screw Caps




  1. What political factors affect wine production?

Global Scale

Multilateral Scale

National Scale

  1. What future challenges face the viticulture and winemaking activities?

  1. Describe the environmental, social and economic impacts of the wine industry in various places around the world.




  1. Describe the location of Bimbadgen (including map)

Located in Pokolbin, Hunter Valley ~2 hours away from Sydney


Bimbadgen is a vineyard and winery located on McDonald's Road, Pokolbin, in New South Wales' Hunter Valley, roughly 2.5 hours north of Sydney. Bimbadgen as an overall enterprise is compiled of multiple aspects, such as viticulture, winemaking, a cafe/restaurant, accommodation, a cellar door and frequent concerts held on the lawn, attracting up to 8000 people. Currently Bimbadgen produces 30 different types of wine, which are sold at the cellar door, to members, wholesalers and exported overseas. As an enterprise, Bimbadgen is owned by the Mulpha Australia group, a subsidiary of Mulpha International, a privately owned Malaysian company. Bimbadgen accounts for approximately 4% of Mulpha Australia's annual turnover. Bimbadgen was added to Mulpha's portfolio in 1996 - before that it was owned by several unsuccessful independent owners. Bimbadgen's properties include the main 100ha site on McDonald's Road, and a further 10ha of purely vineyards on Palmer's Lane, for a total of 27.5ha of vineyards. Besides growing their own grapes, mostly Semillon, Chardonnay, Viognior, Cabernet, Shiraz and Tempranillo, Bimbadgen also imports grapes from a number of other wineries in the Hunter Valley, and across Australia , to turn into wines. The wine is not bottled on site, instead transported to Hunter Valley bottling. Bimbadgen is considered a new world winery, utilising steel vats to create their wines and implementing technological advancements into the winemaking process.

  1. Outline the locational factors for Bimbadgen

Hunter Valley:

  1. Describe the biophysical and human environmental factors affecting the operation of Bimbadgen



  1. Identify internal and external linkages and flows of people, goods, services and ideas at Bimbadgen


  1. Outline the effects of global changes on Bimbadgen